NCAA tries to block sports betting in New Jersey

Gov.

“Gambling on amateur and professional sports threatens the integrity of those sports,” said the NCAA and the sports leagues in court documents.

The NCAA, along with the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and Major League Baseball, filed a complaint in New Jersey federal district court on Tuesday to try to block state officials from authorizing sports gambling.

The Division of Gaming Enforcement published its proposed regulations for gambling at casinos and racetracks on July 2. Chris Christie for signing a law in January that permitted betting on college and professional games at casinos and racetracks. 31, according to the complaint.

The complaint says the state is violating a federal law “enacted by Congress in 1992 in order to halt the spread of gambling on sporting events in the United States.” To top of page

The governor’s office was not immediately available for comment.. The public comment period to protest the proposed regulations ends on Aug. The complaint targets N.J. Sports gambling is illegal in most states.

They said sports gambling “would irreparably harm amateur and professional sports by fostering suspicion that individual plays and final scores of games may have been influenced by factors other than honest athletic competition.”

NEW YORK (CNNMoney) — The National Collegiate Athletic Association and some of the most prominent sports leagues in America are trying to keep sports betting out of New Jersey.

The document says the regulations will go into effect within the next two months, at which point casinos in Atlantic City and racetracks throughout the state can apply for sports gambling licenses.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association is trying to block New Jersey from allowing sports betting at Atlantic City casinos and at racetracks around the state.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association is trying to block New Jersey from allowing sports betting at Atlantic City casinos and at racetracks around the state.

First Published: August 7, 2012: 12:19 PM ET

The complaint also names David Rebuck, assistant attorney general and director of the state’s Division of Gaming Enforcement, as well as Frank Zanzuccki, executive director of the New Jersey Racing Commission

College Football Wrap-Up – 3 More Unbeaten Teams Fall and 7 Top 25 Teams Are Upset

Kearse had 9 catches for 146 yards and his school-record 4 touchdowns came on 16, 45, 17 and 21-yard passes.

The Badgers led 21-3 at the half, and the Buckeyes were wondering if they shouldn’t get on the bus home at halftime. The Longhorns, who had previously lost to UCLA and Oklahoma, led 17-3 at the half and won, 20-13.

The South Carolina Gamecocks, who had just upset Alabama to rise to 10th in the AP Poll, led unranked Kentucky 28-10 at the half, but were outscored 21-zip by the Wildcats in the second half as Kentucky held on to upend the Gamecocks, 31-28.

Eight other Top 25 teams had great wins to keep moving onward and upward.

Earlier in the season, then No. 1 team.

Both Oregon State and Washington are now 3-3 on the season.

Also, 16th-ranked Florida State’s narrow 24-19 effort hosting 110th-ranked Boston College, 17th-ranked Arizona’s weak 24-7 win at Washington State, and 25th-ranked West Virginia’s 20-6 escape against 100th-ranked South Florida.

Nevada was the third unbeaten team to fall. Cornhusker coach Bo Pelini can obsess over those stats all he wants, it doesn’t matter, Nebraska, favored by 10, failed to cover by 18, exactly like Ohio State.

The loss was Nevada’s 6th straight at Hawaii. 15-ranked Stanford were idle this week.

Hawaii also has a high-scoring offense, averaging 39 a game. Whatever happened to that thing called defense?

Florida, ranked 22nd, hosted Mississippi State, rated 33rd by Sagarin, and found itself on the short end of a 10-7 stick. The 19th-ranked Wolf Pack brought their perfect 6-0 mark to Hawaii, the land of pineapples and passes. 1 Ohio State and gave Ohio State a most unfriendly 31-18 whipping while completely dominating the Buckeyes, who came in with their privileged reputation and a 6-0 record.

Ohio State was ranked 6th nationally in scoring offense, and 6th in scoring defense. They included 8th-ranked Alabama’s really lame win at home over 79th-ranked Mississippi 23-10, 9th-ranked LSU’s pathetic triumph over 149th-ranked, AA McNeese State 32-10, and 15th-ranked Iowa’s 38-28 victory over Michigan.

The fact that Nebraska was ranked 9th in scoring offense nationally, 7th in total offense, 4th in scoring defense and 12th in total defense, did not mean squat. The defeat was so bad that the Buckeyes dropped to 11th in the weekly AP Poll.

South Carolina knocked off then No. 1 Alabama put a 31-6 thrashing on the Florida Gators, who won the national championship two years ago and four years ago.

In a side note, Auburn barely led Arkansas 37-35 after the 3rd quarter, but the Tigers outscored the Razorbacks 28-8 on some miscues in the last quarter to go on and win 65-43. Ohio State, favored by 4 on the road, failed to cover by 18 points. The good old boys from the south have choked on their chewing tobacco. The Air Force Falcons will have to regroup for some strategy.

Locker threw a career-high 5 touchdown passes, including 2 to Jermaine Kearse in a double-overtime game, and Oregon State’s 2-point conversion attempt for a win in the 2nd overtime period fell incomplete as the Huskies beat the Beavers 35-34.. Wisconsin would rather smash you in the mouth, and they did.

Six other top-ranked teams had much less impressive victories. It is a new order of virtual parity at the top in college football.

The seventh team to miss victory this week was the 24th-ranked Oregon State Beavers, who were beginning to look for real. Imagine for a moment a SEC game with 108 total points scored. Someone forgot to tell Wisconsin’s players, who could give a flip about the Buckeyes stats. 1-ranked Ohio State, and 3 of the 7 saw their unbeaten seasons ‘and national championship dreams – all but vanish before their eyes.

Air Force, which debuted in the Top 25 last week at 23rd, took a flying leap back out of the poll this week after being beaten by unranked San Diego State, 27-25. 2-ranked Oregon and No. They had won 6 in a row against Washington, and had won 7 of their past 9 Pac-10 road games.

Now there are only 10 major schools that are unbeaten going into the 8th weekend of the season – TCU, Auburn, LSU and Michigan State all are 7-0, and Oregon, Boise State, Oklahoma, Utah, Oklahoma State and Missouri are all 6-0.

No. The voters will now be embarrassed to put their undeserving, favorite team on top of the football polls. 5-ranked Nebraska fared no better. 1 Alabama last week, and this week the Wisconsin Badgers hosted No. The Cornhuskers (5-0), who hosted Texas, are sorry they ever showed up. The Beavers paid a visit to the up-again, down-again Washington Huskies. There is, of course, no truth to the rumor that Warrior players throw pineapples as well as passes, they just have a lot of very big, talented Samoan athletes on the island.

Great home victories included 7th-ranked Auburn outlasting 12th-ranked Arkansas, 65-43, in the game of the week that featured offense and no defense, 4th-ranked TCU over BYU 31-3, 6th-ranked Oklahoma over Iowa State 52-zip, and 13th-ranked Michigan State over Illinois 26-6.

They included really good road wins by 3rd-ranked Boise State over San Jose State 48-zip, 11th-ranked Utah over Wyoming 30-6, 20th-ranked Oklahoma State over Texas Tech 34-17, and 21st-ranked Missouri over Texas A&M 30-9.

Seven other unranked teams deserve a mention.

Here are 3 thumpings – Georgia shutting out Vanderbilt 43-zip, USC taking it to California 48-14, and Kansas State ripping Kansas 59-7 after leading 52-zip after 3 quarters.

The Mississippi State loss meant that Florida coach Urban Meyer suffered 3 consecutive losses for the first time in his coaching career. The Aztecs, who led 10-6 at the half, made it official with the final score. Locker also picked up 60 yards on 12 carries (5.0 ypc), and Chris Polk added another 105 yards. Hawaii leads the nation in passing offense.

South Carolina just did not play the second half, and failed to finish off its opponent.

Besides Ohio State, Nebraska and Nevada, 4 other ranked teams lost – South Carolina, Florida, Air Force and Oregon State.

All bets are off now – the national championship race is wide open, and apparently getting wider by the week.

Here are 4 upsets – East Carolina, ranked 71st, knocking off North Carolina State 33-27 in overtime, 189th-ranked Eastern Michigan beating 124th-ranked Ball State 41-38 in overtime, 161st-ranked Rice nipping 77th-ranked Houston 34-31, and 159th-ranked UAB (Alabama-Birmingham) upsetting 112th-ranked UTEP (Texas-El Paso), 21-6.

No. The Warriors (now 5-2) had more total offensive yards and passing yards. The Gators offense has just collapsed; two weeks ago they only scored 6 on Alabama, and now they have just dropped out of the Top 25 with a 4-3 record following consecutive losses to Alabama, LSU and Mississippi State.

Copyright © 2010 Ed Bagley

That said, the Huskies have a real headliner in Jake Locker, who would be winning more games if his receivers would stop dropping passes, and his defensive teammates would start playing defense.

The college football world was turned upside down this week as 7 Top 25 teams were upset, including No. Apparently, when there is no Tim Tebow, there is suddenly no Florida.

The best realization of this is that it is impossible to just pencil in Alabama, Florida or Ohio State as the No. That’s tough luck, for Florida, not Mississippi State.

Washington needed a defensive stop at a critical moment and finally got one when the conversion pass to Joe Halahuni went through his hands as he was hit by linebacker Cort Dennison.

Throw out almost everything you thought you knew for sure. The Warriors shut down Nevada’s 7th-ranked scoring offense (43 points per game) while winning, 27-21, after leading 17-zip at the half.

Locker was 21-of-35 passing (60%) for 286 yards and the 5 TD strikes

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3

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College football

Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. Rutgers Through The Years.

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

Notable intersectional games

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. College Football Data Warehouse. Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. College Football Encyclopedia. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. The University of Alabama. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Basketball

Men

Women

The 1905 Utah football team

On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. p. 52. College Football Historical Society. 2007. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. 16: 583. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/153.

^ Jim L. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). MSNBC. How to Scout Football. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). San Francisco Chronicle. 2007. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

Soccer

Men

Women

Rugby Football in England and Canada

NCAA

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

Football

Championship

Beach volleyball

Women

Bowling

Women

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. of C. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. “N.C.A.A. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

Mid West

Controversy

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

Walter Camp: Father of American football

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

Awards

Hall of Champions

Conferences

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

References

Harvard vs. Pennsylvania”. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.

Southwest

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. Kansas Historical Quarterly. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. Kicked tries count as one point. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. Hickok Sports. National Collegiate Athletic Association. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. MSN Encarta. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. p. 15 – via Google books. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. The Anatomy of a Game. “Sport Slants”. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. Professional Football Researchers Association. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. OSU Alumni Association. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. 2001. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

Soccer

Men

Women

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. 16 Stanford”. NCAA.com. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). 2007-02-14. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

East

In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

Ice hockey

Men

Women

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

Skiing

Championships

Map of NAIA

A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. 111, Issue 8

Brian M. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. February 19, 1911. Nixon (1898-12-16). From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. 2006. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. p. 8. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

The 1893 Stanford American football team. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. “Why California Likes Rugby”. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. Football, the American intercollegiate game. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. “College Football”. p. 3. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. Ralph Turtinen, ed. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game'”. Princeton Alumni Weekly. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. The number grew to eleven in 1976. NFL.com. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. Lincoln Evening Journal. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

Ice hockey

Men

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. (1916-10-15). April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

History

See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). But no record has been found of the score of this contest. Bill Traughber. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. August 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. USC Trojans. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Playoff games

Division III

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

Meanwhile, John H. open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. Lawrence Journal-World. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895”. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. December 18, 1930. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

Map of CCCAA

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. p. 5. College Football Data Warehouse. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

Coaching

Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

Lacrosse

Men

Women

— John C. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

Tennis

Men

Women

Map of NJCAA

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. heisman.com. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

Awards

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

Single-division sports

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. Atlanta Constitution. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

Fencing

Championships

Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. Navy won 24-0.

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]

National Collegiate Athletic Association

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Mcgill.ca. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. NCAA. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). NFL Enterprises LLC. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Saperecom. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

American football historian Parke H. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. 2007. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. TheGame.org. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. Smith. Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901”.

^ Mark F. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. Several major rivalries date from this time period.

Boxing

Championship

^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. April 16, 2007. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

Tennis

Men

Women

Golf

Men

Women

Modern college football (since 1958)

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

Rowing

Women

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. It also became increasingly violent. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. Atlanta Constitution. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. Football Immortals. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Retrieved 2007-03-21. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. McGill football game

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. New York Times. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

Trampoline

Championship

Map of Division I (A) FBS

Football

Championship

1.6.2 Coaches of the era

1.6.2.1 Glenn “Pop” Warner

1.6.2.2 Knute Rockne

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

Division II

Basketball

Men

Women

American college football

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

Division I sports

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. Heisman Trophy. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920”. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. Weyand (1962). Each school played its own variety of football. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

Violence, formation of NCAA

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]

Era

Touchdown

Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)

Safety

Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

1883

2

5

4

1

1883-1897

4

5

2

2

1898-1903

5

5

1

2

1904-1908

5

4

1

2

1909-1911

5

3

1

2

1912-1957

6

3

1

2

1958-1987

6

3

1

2

2

1

1988-present

6

3

1

2

2

1

2

Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.

Expansion

^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). Augusta Computer Services. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. It appears here in its original form:

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. 2007. December 30, 1894. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. Stanford: Home of Champions. “The Birth of OSU Football”. “College Football in Kansas”. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

Soccer

Men

Women

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

Volleyball

Women

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. pp. 11-13. 256 players are selected annually. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

Mountain West

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. NCAA.org. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

Gymnastics

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Women

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

Tennis

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Heisman shift

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

Organization

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

Softball

Championship/WCWS

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. McGill

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738179815”

The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

See also

Contents

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

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Championship

Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.

Softball

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CWS

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games

Statistics

College Football at d1sportsnet.com

College Football at Sports-Reference.com

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History

Rules

NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations

Maps

Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

Lacrosse

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Women

Golf

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Women

Listen to this article (info/dl)

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. Journal of Sport History, Vol. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. Sports Publishing LLC. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. Retrieved 2016-01-24.

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. Deseret News. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). Nixon, also the school’s second captain. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. 2007. (1995). Athens, Georgia: E. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. (2007). While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]

Don Hutson in 1940.

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. Sports Reference.com. 2006. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. Bernstein. Sumner (1990). Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

Rifle

Championship

Rowing

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Lacrosse

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Women

The first USC football squad (1888). The Dallas Morning News. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. April 15, 2011. Journal of Sport History. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). Boston Daily Globe. p. 21. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

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In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

Institutions

Athletic directors

Baseball

Championship

CWS

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. Joseph M. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892”. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Chicago Tribune. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. Rutgers University. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. This college rule was added in 1988. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

Knute Rockne

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. 1895. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl

From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. 2012-05-14. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. (1991). The Strode Publishers. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. ESPN.com. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). British Columbia Rugby Union. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. The Kingsport Times. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. Los Angeles Herald. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. Outing. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. dartmo.com. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. FOX Sports on MSN. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. nfl.com. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). WorldCat.org. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. Harvard University Sports Information Office. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. Frank Suffel and Henry H. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

Football

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Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. 2007. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. The History of Sports. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

South

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

Rise of the South

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

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Field hockey

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After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. The Research Quarterly. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. sporting event.[76]

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910”. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period’; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association’; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

Cross Country

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Women

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894” (PDF). Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. pp. 285-311. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. The Walter Camp Foundation. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. NFL.com. November 27, 2011. University of Virginia Football Vault. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

games 1930-2010[144]

Year

# of games

1930

1

1940

5

1950

8

1960

8

1970

8

1980

15

1990

19

2000

25

2010

35

2014

College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. November 7, 1886. The New York Times. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

1906 St. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Stanford: Home of Champions. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. 18, No. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. Associated Press. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. College Football Data Warehouse. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. (1969). p. 186. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. “Southeastern Conference”. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ESPN.com: Top N. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

Led by coach Fielding H. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015”. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. University of Illinois. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. p. 232.

^ David M. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. Reading Eagle. ACTIVE.com. Professional Football Researchers Association. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

Cross Country

Men

Women

Basketball

Men

Women

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. “Changing seasons: Y. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889” (PDF). Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

Volleyball

Men

Women

1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

[…]

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. December 27, 1892. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]

and championships

Pacific Coast

Gymnastics

Men

Women

Men-DII

Women-DII

Cross Country

Men

Women

[…]

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South

1.6.1.1 Heisman shift

1.6.1.2 Notable intersectional games

Map of NCAA Division II

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. August 22, 1900. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

Volleyball

Men

Women

Softball

Championship/WCWS

1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

Water polo

Men

Women

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

Golf

Men

Women

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. 2007. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

Map of NCAA Division III

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. Nelson. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. 40: 717-724. ESPN. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

and championships

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). Stone. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

Ice hockey

Men

Women

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.

Rowing

Women

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. Tar Heel Times. Tennessee Historical Society. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. Associated Press. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. May 8, 1900. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. Los Angeles Times. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

Wrestling

Championship

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. Lawrence Daily Journal. American athletes of the century”. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. Davis. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. A (October 1913 – March 1914). Football’s Greatest Coaches. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

v

t

e

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922”.

^ “Alabama vs. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). Journal of Sport History. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. D

Summer Games For Kids: How To Play Wiffle Ball

Plus, who doesn’t love the bright, fun color? It just feels like summer. 

Throw down bases

While not a necessity (you can use landmarks, stones, and other natural markers), many people like using throw down bases. But again, it adds to the play risk. And a whole lot of fun!

When I was a child, there was no game I loved more than wiffle ball. Outs are scored by striking out, a defender catching a fly in fair or foul territory, but with a ground ball, there needs to be a tag or a force out (touch a base before a runner who is forced to move gets to it, due to a hit). 

Just for kicks

When one on one, you’ve got the entire field as the defender. It gives the game a little more organized feel, and they’re really not that pricey of an accessory for the value they bring.

Game variations

There are quite a few ways to play a game of wiffle ball. A single gets a runner on base. Why not just play baseball or softball you may be asking? Those can be fun summer games for kids too, but there’s a lot of cool things about wiffle ball that place it in a class all its own. 

The thrown ball tag variation

The offical (or close to it) wiffle ball game

This is great for two players, but there can be as many as five per team. I suggest fifteen feet per each of these markers, starting from home plate. It’ll also score any runners already on second or third. Wiffle ball equipment is more like plastic lightweight toys in comparison.

It’s great baseball or softball training: If your child has shown interest in these sports, wiffle ball is a great low impact place to start. 

The equipment you need

As mentioned, it’s pretty cheap to get a wiffle ball set up going. Other variations have holes covering the entire ball, and often the holes are a perfectly circular shape. Essentially you are moving imaginary runners around the diamond. But of course, no person can be passed the home run marker, unless you’re just a family onlooker cheering on the game!

You score runs by getting a clean hit that lands (and stops) in one of the marked areas. If you can hit the runner in the torso area (no head, no legs) while the runner is circling the bases, then the runner is out. 

What is wiffle ball?

Technically you don’t need to have any ruled game surrounding your play time. There are lots of ways to play (well beyond the official rules), it’s cheap to set up, and, perhaps most importantly, it’s an outside game so everyone can enjoy the beautiful sunny weather. Set up foul lines, a strike zone (a piece of marked cardboard can help), and field markers for a single, double, triple, and home run. But, my friends and I loved this variation when we were kids. There are no walks as wiffle balls can be tough to control. 

You can play at a moments notice: No need for finding gloves and protective gear, getting a team together, and getting to a field. 

You can play in the country or in a more urban setting: Wiffle balls and bats were designed to make sure the balls don’t travel too far when hit or pitched. In fact, as far as summer games for kids go, I’d say this one ranks up there in terms of fun, exercise, and family-bonding potential. For most wiffle ball game variations, you have the exact same goals as in baseball. A home run is, well, a home run. Really, it’s the same as the baseball variation above, but you can get someone out through a well-aimed throw at the runner. I had a few wiffle balls to the head in my day, though I should say I think I’m pretty ok from it.

The “it’s just like baseball” variation

A lot of warm weather good times to be had

So if you’re considering your options for cool summer games for kids around your neighborhood, here’s a vote for giving wiffle ball a shot. But if you love softball, the twelve-inch varieties are your best bet. 

The wiffle ball bat

The original yellow plastic bat is a classic. If you can catch up to a fly ball (in fair or foul territory) or a moving ground ball in fair territory, you can snag it for an out, no matter where on the field. Then get to pitching and hitting! 

This is a great way for a small team (even two people) to play a base running version of the game. This is a game that works just as well at a group picnic or an empty basketball court, as it does in your own backyard. 

Easy to set up. Easy to play. If there are more than two players, you can place one person in each designated marker area. And when hit in the air, they can take some unusual twists and turns. 

It’s pretty safe for young ones: Baseballs and baseball bats can be dangerous in young hands. There is no running of the bases, only pitching, hitting, and outs. Plus, the balls are hollow and light, so it’s nearly impossible for them to do major damage to things they hit.

A game can work with two people or eighteen people: This is a summer kid’s game that can be just as fun one-on-one as against a team. 

The balls are fun to throw, hit, and catch: The holes in the balls allow you to throw some amazing “junk” pitches with lots of curves and sliding action. All you need is some basic equipment and you are set!

Wiffle balls

I’m a fan of the original wiffle balls, though there are variations out there. Here are a few, but feel free to make up your own house rules, too:. Here you’ll learn the basics of what you need to know (and have) to get a good game of wiffle ball going. 

Well, simply put–it’s like baseball but with a hollow plastic bat and plastic balls made with unique (and often oblong) holes. Outs are earned by striking out, catching a ball in the air, or grabbing a ground ball while it’s still in motion. It’s great for getting summer time exercise for the kids. It can be a lot of fun (and great baseball and softball training) just to throw the ball, swing the bat, and field without keeping score. Your child could even play on his or her own using a wiffle ball machine like the one below.

What makes wiffle ball special?

There are three outs per side. Pitch the ball, hit the ball, move runners forward, and get the batter out. It’s light, easy to swing, and durable. A double will move an imaginary runner on first to third. I’ve found that the original balls allow for more spin and tricks with the ball when pitching, and it does more interesting things in the air when hit.

I also prefer the nine-inch balls to the twelve-inch wiffle balls. If you’ve got young baseball fans in the family, this is a great game to share with them.

This one is not for everyone. Proceed with caution. They are easier for kids to hold and throw, and they are a bit more challenging to hit. If you don’t like the idea of your kids throwing wiffle balls at someone running the bases, just ignore this one. It’s the only wiffle ball bat you need, no matter kid or adult. You field a team, you run the bases, and you score runs. A double or triple will clear the bases. Foul tips are strikes, except for the third strike (just like in baseball), and balls that aren’t swung at, but hit your strike marker are strikes as well. 

The title says it all. These balls have oblong holes going around the top of the ball only. The fact that you can pick up and play just about anywhere adds to it too. It’s got so much going for it between the family and team bonding opportunities, the skill learning, and ultimately just the fun of throwing, fielding, and batting these crazy balls. They can’t leave that area, but they can snag any balls in it

Tribute to Henny Youngman – King of the One-Liners

A bum came up to me saying, “I haven’t eaten in two days!” I said, “You should force yourself!”

The hotel I’m in has a lovely closet. A nail. Just then, two ants climbed on the ball saying, “Let’s get up here fast before we get killed!”

My room is so small, the mice are hunchbacked. .

I’m now making a Jewish porno film.

Farrah’s dressing room was next to mine.

Hollywood Jokes

Homeless Guys Jokes

My horse was so late getting home, he tiptoed into the stable.

Another drunk goes up to a parking meter, puts in a quarter, the dial goes to 60.

The room is so small, when I put the key in, I broke the window!

I played a great horse yesterday! It took seven horses to beat him. I lost 100 pounds!”

This is an elegant hotel! Room service has an unlisted number. The horse turns around and says “Why are you hitting me, there is nobody behind us!”

Another bum told me, “I haven’t tasted food all week.” I told him, “Don’t worry, it still tastes the same!”

The horse I bet on was so slow, the jockey kept a diary of the trip. The judge says, “You’ve been brought here for drinking.” The drunk says, “Okay, let’s get started.”

My horse’s jockey was hitting the horse. I let her look. I don’t mind when my horse comes up to me in the stands and asks, “Which way do I go?” But when the horse I bet on is at the $2 window betting on another horse in the same race .

A drunk was in front of a judge.

I have a lovely room and bath in the hotel. I swung again, missed the ball, and got another big chunk of dirt. . I swung, missed the ball, and got a big chunk of dirt. . 10% sex, 90% guilt.

A bum asked me, “Give me $10 till payday.” I asked, “When’s payday?” He said, “I don’t know, you’re the one who is working!”

I was walking down the street, and I found a man’s hand in my pocket. The drunk says, “Huh. There was a little hole in the wall. I asked, “What do you want?” He said, “A match” “Why didn’t you ask me?” “I don’t talk to strangers.”

Hotel Jokes

I don’t mind when my horse is left at the post. It’s a little inconvenient; they’re in two separate buildings!

Drunk Jokes

I was playing golf.

Hollywood called me, asking me, “How much to do a movie with Farrah Fawcett?” I said, “$50,000.” They called back, “How about $20,000?” I said, “I’ll pay it!”

There was a girl knocking on my hotel room door all night! Finally, I let her out

The most expensive college football ticket can be found here

Related: Under Armour signs on with Fighting Irish

Total football revenue for the 146 schools with major programs came to $3.7 billion for the 2014 season, the most recent figures reported to the federal government.

These are the prices that the tickets which are resold by fans, not what the teams get for tickets. 17 game when Ohio State visits Oklahoma will be the most expensive game in college football, with an average price of $687.86 to see the first Big Ten team to visit Oklahoma in 30 years. 2, 2016 by Chris Isidore   @CNNMoney September 2, 2016: 3:21 PM ET

Fans will pay an average of $335.35 on the secondary ticket market to watch Notre Dame at home in South Bend this season, according to ticket tracker TiqIQ. The team’s large fan base beyond those who attended the school helps drive up demand for tickets, along with prices. They’ve been No.

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While that’s little changed from what Fighting Irish fans paid last year, it’s 17% more than the average price for games at No. 2 Ohio State this season. 1 in price three of the last four years and were No.

CNNMoney (New York) First published September 2, 2016: 3:21 PM ET

The most expensive college football ticket can be found here – Sep.

The college football season starts this weekend. That makes them only the 21st most expensive ticket, despite the team’s recent on-field success. The Alabama tickets are actually 12% cheaper than they were last season.

While Notre Dame has the highest average ticket prices, the Sept. 2 in 2014, when they narrowly trailed Ohio State. That comes to an average of about $30 million per school. Michigan is the fifth most expensive ticket of the season at $524.23. Notre Dame’s home game that day vs.

Meanwhile tickets to watch defending national champions Alabama are a relative bargain at an average price of $142.28.

Notre Dame tickets are frequently the most expensive college tickets in the country

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